New Brunswick, NJ: Eagleton Institute of Politics. (2005). Researchers have identified, in general terms, what expert teachers know about their discipline, how to teach it, and, to a lesser extent, what they understand about student learning. Some well-developed programs that are based heavily on benchmarking assessments have shown positive student learning effects. In the context of a multiple-year study of local systemic reform in the Detroit Public Schools, Fishman and colleagues studied the implementation of new middle school curriculum over several years. Monk (1994) found similar effects in mathematics and physical sciences but not in the life sciences. Benchmarking assessments or curriculum-embedded formative assessments created in the context of a curriculum are designed to elicit student thinking and are referenced specifically to an interpretive framework. (2001). 159-165). The effects of science teacher subject-matter knowledge on teacher questioning and classroom discourse. Bryk, A.S., and Schneider, B.L. Expert teachers have knowledge of subject matter that is peculiarly suited for instruction (Shulman, 1986, 1987; Wilson, Shulman, and Richert, 1987).1 While scientists will understand the canon of accepted scientific theory deeply, the range of questions that are “in play,” and the modes of inquiry in the field, they will not necessarily know how to make this knowledge accessible to children and other nonexperts. What is meaningful and stimulating to one group of students may not be for another. Research in science is even less developed than research in mathematics. Comments unique to a particular student’s performance relative to an absolute standard appear to motivate students to achieve at higher levels, while responses that include solely grades or praise (or no feedback at all) seem to have little effect on student achievement, and some evidence would indicate a small negative effect from these types of feedback (Butler, 1987, 1988). However, we can consider the state standards of those that do have such standards to discern what states expect middle grade teachers to know about science. Jones, M.G., and Carter, G. (in press). Integrating inquiry science and language development for English language learners. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? It may be some time before schools have and can use a comprehensive K-8 (or K-12) learning progression like that described in Chapter 7 as the basis of curriculum. Porter, A.C., Garet, M.S., Desimone, L., Yoon, K.S., and Birman, B.F. (2000, October). Provide teachers with a coherent view of the instructional system (e.g., helping teachers see connections among content and performance standards, instructional materials, local and state assessments, school and district goals, and the development of a professional community). Fennema, E., Carpenter, T., Franke, M., Levi, L., Jacobs, V., and Empson, S. (1996). In analyses of the first year of student learning data in a unit on water quality, researchers noted that students struggled with problems asking them to refer to two-dimensional maps, a fundamental skill for many of the concepts they wanted students to master, including representing water sheds, envisioning and describing points of contamination, and characterizing directional patterns of effluence. Beginning with the effective schools studies, researchers have found that focus, unity of purpose, and a shared vision of outcomes are related to gains in student learning (Smith and O’Day, 1991; Bryk, Lee, and Holland, 1993; Hill and Celio, 1998). Cuevas, P., Lee, O., Hart, J., and Deaktor, R. (2005). Using the right instructional strategies for science can help students to stay interested in science even after elementary school (where it is usually a favorite subject among students). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34, 673-699. 17 Teaching Principles of Effective Instruction. workshop, where they were trained to implement the curriculum-embedded assessments following the interpretive framework for formative assessment. These texts typically lack coherent attention to concepts in favor of including many topics, and they rarely provide teachers with guidance about how students think about science (Kesidou and Roseman, 2002). Journal of Education Finance, 28(1), 51-74. Students do their best learning when they are engaged and involved. American Federation of Teachers. Teacher professional development to improve the science and literacy achievement of English language learners. Review of Educational Research, 61, 213-238. We describe opportunities to learn that take place in the naturally occurring functions of the school, as well as through programs specifically designed to support teacher learning and improved instruction. 616 0 obj <> endobj Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. A program of research on “cognitively guided instruction” at the University of Wisconsin has shown that teacher professional development designed to support understanding of student ideas can have profound effects on teachers’ knowledge and instructional practice and, importantly, that this knowledge translates to measurable learning gains for students (Carpenter et al., 1989; Fennema et al., 1996). Effective Science Instruction: What Does Research Tell Us? Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield. Preservice elementary teachers’ conceptions of science: Science, theories and evolution. School leaders may opt to invest in a cadre of specialized science educators—science specialists, teacher leaders, coaches, mentors, demonstration teachers, lead teachers—rather than, or in conjunction with, organized forms of teacher opportunities to learn described above. Bryk, A.S., Lee, V.E., and Holland, P.E. Of course, subject matter knowledge for teaching is not absolute but can be understood as situated. Her experiences in the summer institute were systematically linked to the kinds of experiences and discussions she developed with her students. Most teachers assume that English-language learners must acquire English before learning subject matter, although this approach almost inevitably leads such students to fall behind theirEnglish-speaking peers (National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1997). International Journal of Science Education, 12, 381-390. Second, where do empirical links between classroom and school-level supports for instruction and student learning exist? (2006) reported that the schools and districts participating in NSF-funded local systemic change initiatives made some progress toward providing teachers with more support for reformed classroom practice in science and also made limited progress with aligning policies with science standards. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, April, Chicago. Fishman et al. 877-904). Fishman, B.J., Marz, R.W., Best, S., and Tal, R.T. (2003). Cognition and policy implementation: District policy makers and the reform of mathematics education. However, they can begin to make important steps in that direction by carefully selecting and modifying curricular materials so that they present central scientific ideas across grades. 0000001016 00000 n In W. Damon (Series Ed.) A cost framework for professional development. 217-242). A solution to this problem is for districts or schools to set up systems for replenishing the modules and distributing them across classrooms or “materials resources centers.” These centers shift the burden of preparing materials from the individual teacher to a specialized unit in the system. Assessments were embedded at key conceptual “joints” in the curriculum, following a developmental trajectory of understanding density that students were expected to experience. Goldhaber and Brewer (2000) used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 to conduct a multiple regression analysis of 6,000 high school seniors and 2,400 mathematics and science courses. An important component of folk pedagogy is a mental model of the learner (Strauss, 1997). Brown, B.B., Reveles, J.M., and Kelly, G.J. Other states are less specific about teaching assignments and instead require prospective teachers to choose from a range of subjects when satisfying subject matter requirements. They compared year 1 gains with year 2 gains. In contrast, we have argued that learning science includes participating in scientific practice in which learners engage in meaningful problems over time. Hammer, D., and Elby, A. Shulman pleaded: “I hope that those who use these ideas now and in the future give more attention that I did to the connections between teachers’ knowledge and the ultimate consequences for students’ learning and development” (p. xi). He continues (pp. Smith, M., and O’Day, J. Carlsen, W.S. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. (CPRE Policy Brief). Since the modules are expensive, schools often ask teachers to share them, and replenishing the supplies becomes a problem. Although 80 percent of states require demonstration of subject matter competence for obtaining an elementary school certificate, most states do not stipulate what that means in terms of the content that teacher candidates should study, nor the clusters of courses they should take. It’s about time: Opportunities to learn in Chicago’s elementary schools. It is what happens when the master schedule is set up so that student time is allocated to the tasks on which they are furthest behind and so that teacher time is allocated to the students who need the most help. Their research entailed analyzing pre- and post-instruction student assessments over multiple years of instruction. Consider how this dual focus on content and how it is learned inform the identification of meaningful questions. (2000). Unpublished doctoral dissertation,Stanford University. ), Handbook of child psychology, volume 4: Child psychology in practice (5th ed., pp. Strauss encapsulates the mental model metaphorically: “the entrance to the children’s minds has ‘flaps’ that are open when children are attentive. and I. E. Sigel and K. A. Renninger (Vol. How can science education capitalize on children's natural curiosity? Task-involving and ego-involving properties of evaluation: Effects of different feedback conditions on motivational perceptions, interest, and performance. As scientific capacity in the K-8 teacher workforce is often quite thin, professional communities that will support science instructional improvement may require recruiting local science teaching experts to work with teachers, or building relationships between schools and other organizations (informal science learning institutions, universities, industry) that have expertise in science and science teaching. Supovitz, J.A., and Turner, H. (2000). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 11(3), 201-223. Illinois, for example, requires 18 credit hours in the subject area of assignment. Even more than quantity of knowledge, the qualities of teachers’ understanding of science are also important. Olson, M. (2005). However, there is a handful of case studies (e.g., Crawford, 2000; Rosebery and Puttick, 1998; Smith and Anderson, 1999) that describe the features of high-quality science teacher professional development that engages teachers in doing science, as well as some analyses of its impact on instructional practice and student learning. classroom instruction in science include powerful influences outside school (e.g., Lareau, 2000), within school systems at the state or district level (Spillane, 1996, 2000), and at the school and classroom level (Cohen, Raudenbush, and Ball, 2001). The NASDTEC manual on the preparation and certification of educational personnel 2004 Ninth edition. (2002). Student perceptions of instruction, peer interest, and adult support for middle school science: Differences by race and gender. Ingersoll, R.E. Putnam, R.T., and Borko, H. (2000). Although evidence suggests an important role for teacher leaders in influencing peers’ practice and there is correlational evidence of an effect on student learning, there has been little careful analysis of the effects of teacher leaders on student learning. Besides the school structures and norms that support quality science instruction, professional development programs also support teacher learning and instructional improvement. (1999). In addition to significantly bolstering K-8 science teachers’ opportunities to learn, schools and school systems can benefit from developing and refining instructional systems that focus and support science instruction. For example, the “inquiry” standard indicates that an “acceptable” elementary candidate would “demonstrate an understanding of the abilities needed to do scientific inquiry” but provides no further definition of what inquiry is, the attendant abilities, nor descriptions of performances that would be indicative of satisfactory understanding. Windschitl tracked their thinking about science through regular journal entries for one semester and conducted interviews with them on their experiences in science from middle school forward. 0000012831 00000 n Louis, K.S., and Marks, H.M. (1998). Elmore, R.F., and Burney, D. (1997). Amaral, O., Garrison, L., and Klentschy, M. (2002). Student learning of science depends on teachers having adequate knowledge of science. Clearly the scientific knowledge of K-8 teachers is often quite thin. It also provides processes and tools that can guide their. In the next two sections, we extend our discussion of teachers’ opportunities to learn in the organizational context of schools and departments and in professional development programs. (1988). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. London, England: Cassell. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(3), 337-357. Short of comprehensive curriculum packages, many primary and middle schools use commercially available science modules or kits for select units or in particular grades. (1989). Delaware and Maine both require 12 semester hours in science. Spillane found that elementary school teachers tended to have stronger group affiliations and collaborative activities around literacy. Accordingly, skillful teachers need to apply their knowledge flexibly in practice in response to this variability (Putnam and Borko, 2000). Are there critical stages in a child's development of such scientific concepts as mass or animate objects? Designed to teach major concepts and the scientific process by engaging students in guided inquiry, curriculum kits or modules are aligned with the national standards. Stands out by providing space for full and detailed reporting of major studies. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, Learning Research Development Center. When teachers work collectively in teams, work groups, or as a department, their efforts can yield important instructional results and measurable effects on student learning. Does professional community affect the classroom? The use of benchmarking assessment is clearly not a silver bullet. Pretests consisted of a multiple-choice achievement test and a science motivation questionnaire. With this understanding in hand, educators will be better positioned to craft teacher credentialing policy and design teacher learning experiences. Bilingual Research Journal, 26(2), 213-239. International Journal of Science Education,11, 401-415. Carpenter, T.P., Fennema, E., Peterson, P.L., Chiang, C., and Loef, M. (1989). In V. Richardson (Ed. Assessment and classroom learning. Current research on K-8 science learning suggests a model of instruction that contrasts starkly with current instructional practice. This practice is not common in U.S. elementary schools, although some countries typically rely on science specialists from as early as second grade. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39, 889-910. Planning instruction 2. Bodilly, J.R. Galegher, and K.A. Lave, J., and Wenger, E. (1991). Two questions guide our discussion of the literature in this chapter. Fixing urban schools. Marc Tucker (2004) has observed that one of the key differences between the U.S. education system and systems in countries whose students regularly outperform U.S. students is that they are instructionally coherent. The research on this matter is scarce and of uneven quality, and careful analyses of teachers’ understanding of student learning are rare in the science education research literature. Success for All, for example, uses reading tests at 6-week intervals to determine the effectiveness of reading instruction and to regroup students for subsequent instruction. American Journal of Education, 106, 532-575. We use examples to illustrate how the features listed above are enacted in professional development and to provide further evidence of the teacher and student learning effects of well-designed teacher learning opportunities. We have described four intertwining strands of scientific practice that almost all K-8 students should be able to master given well-structured opportunities to learn. Corcoran, T.B., Walker, L.J., and White, J.L. Instruction is a general term that means providing knowledge in a systematic way. (2003). Goldhaber, D.D., and Brewer, D.J. They were provided with professional development, in-classroom professional support from resource teachers, and complete materials and supplies for all the science units. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(4), 474-482. In B. Torff and R.J. Sternberg (Eds. We identified no studies that examined the use of science specialists who assume instructional duties in grades K-5. Ideally, local decision makers would have at their disposal a plethora of reliable data and guidance to make decisions about selecting and using modules. For instance, Georgia requires 30 semester hours in at least 2 of the teaching areas applicable to middle school, but it does not require teachers to take science courses in order to be assigned to a science teaching assignment. Exceptional Children, 53, 199-208. Despite emerging evidence that the continuous improvement of practice and student performance requires sustained high-quality opportunities for teacher learning, few school districts provide teachers with curricular-based institutes, mentoring and coaching, and opportunities for examination of and reflection on classroom practice required to deepen their subject-matter expertise and pedagogical content knowledge. Banilower et al. Appropriating scientific practices and discourses with future elementary teachers. Student positioning within groups during science activities. Yet the ways that those principles are instantiatedâin astrophysics, biochemistry, labor economics, cultural anthropology, or mathematics teachingâdepend on the specific features of what is being studied. Unfortunately, an inquiry-approach to teaching science is not the norm in schools as "many teachers are still striving to build a shared understanding of what science as inquiry means, and at a more practical level, what it looks like in the classroom ( Keeley, 2008 )." Getting it right: The MISE approach to professional development. Policy makers, school leaders, and teachers are becoming interested in the use of benchmarking assessments that provide practitioners with regular feedback on student learning, so that their progress can be judged either continually or periodically, and information about student learning can inform instructional decisions in a timely fashion. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. However, it was part of a systemic approach to reform, and specific contributions of the teacher leaders were not identified. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Here, as in previous sections, by and large, the research base is not specific to science but was drawn from studies in the context of literacy and mathematics. Berkeley Evaluation and Assessment Research Center. (2001). Science Education, 77, 261-278. Individuals may not be aware of their own folk pedagogy, and it may even be incommensurate with their own espoused views of teaching and learning, constraining the range of pedagogical moves they will make. In a community of teaching practice, individuals engage in the shared work of teaching. The effects of professional development on science teaching practices and classroom culture. Folk psychology, folk pedagogy and their relations to subject matter knowledge. Effects of teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching on student achievement. Improving science inquiry with elementary students of diverse backgrounds. There may be additional features and challenges of building science teacher teams or work groups, but to date, these are not well documented in the science education literature. Smith, D.C., and Neale, D.C. (1989). American Educational Research Journal, 26, 499-532. School leaders who participate in creating and sustaining teacher learning opportunities are better positioned to support teachers’ use of new knowledge and skills. Boulder: Bureau of Sociological Research, University of Colorado. The studies we have described highlight important features of teacher professional development: these approaches are rooted in subject matter that teachers teach, focused on student learning, rooted in activities of teachers’ work, take place over extended periods of time, and are actively supported by school system administrators. Folk theories of “inquiry”: How preservice teachers reproduce the discourse and practices of the scientific method. For example, if four schools share two sets of kits, it would be difficult to teach the units in a clearly defined, developmental learning progression across classrooms. Finally, we discuss the use of science specialists as an alternate means of bolstering science instructional capacity. Districts with coherent curriculum programs, professional development that supports teachers’ thoughtful and skillful use of curriculum, accountability systems that hold all teachers and administrators responsible for teaching the curriculum, and assessments that provide appropriate measures of what students are expected to learn are most likely to have effective teacher leadership. Teachers’ work and student experiences in restructuring schools. Prepared under Contract (EA97001001) by American Institutes for Research for the U.S. Department of Education Office of the Under Secretary. Kim found that the urban systemic initiatives had demonstrable effects on teacher practice and student learning outcomes in both mathematics and science. A score of four describes accomplished, effective instruction as, Instruction is purposeful and engaging for . He describes these educational systems as follows (p. 203): They had instructional systems that could properly be called systems. (1991) found in a meta-analysis of 58 experiments that while periodic feedback generally improved student performance, the type of feedback students received had the largest effect. Designing Effective Science Lessons is an eight-day professional development program that empowers teachers to make immediate and steady improvements to their science instruction in grades Kâ12. 208-209): [Coherence] is what happens when the school makes sure that the parents know what standards the students are expected to meet, how their children are doing, and what they can do to help where the help is most needed. Chapel Hill, NC: Horizon Research. Next we review the literature on teachers’ opportunities to learn with regard to student diversity. For instance, Windshitl (2004) studied the views of pre-service science teachers as they designed and conducted studies in the context of a secondary science methods course. Yin, Y. There is broad agreement that well-designed opportunities for teacher learning can produce desirable changes in instructional practice and improved science learning for students. xref Sanders, L.R., Borko, H., and Lockard, J.D. Hammer and Elby (2003) in their analysis of undergraduates’ perspectives on learning physics found that, in contrast to the “modeling game” of practicing physicists, many undergraduate students “view physics knowledge as a collection of facts, formulas, and problem solving methods, mostly disconnected from everyday thinking, and they view learning as primarily a matter of memorization” (p. 54; see also Elby, 1999). Progress was limited because so many external factors—state and federal policies, private funding, etc.—influenced local policies. He analyzed their efforts to develop inquiry projects (beginning with formulating questions through presentations to peers) and found that they had a common folk view of science. mutual accountability and collaboration. Although there is no empirical research that examines how the teachers’ mental model of students influences student learning, we draw attention. In part, this reflects the lower status of science in the lower grades, where mathematics and language arts are emphasized. %PDF-1.4 %���� By looking at a broad range of questions, this book provides a basic foundation for guiding science teaching and supporting students in their learning. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Philadelphia: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania. Submitted to Handbook of Research on Science Teaching. The characteristics of effective instruction can be represented in four groups: 1. Accordingly, their ideas about science become a central component of science instruction that teachers need to understand and act on. Elmore, R.F. Require the active support of school and district leaders. In the previous section we described the forms of knowledge that excellent science teachers draw on to inform instruction. Designing effective professional development: Lessons from the Eisenhower program. Start studying Science - Competency 1 - Knowledge of Effective Science Instruction. (1997). Pomeroy, D. (1993). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35, 673-695. (1999). State policy and classroom performance: Mathematics reform in California. Subject matter preparation of secondary mathematics and science teachers and student achievement. Developing communities of instructional practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 3(2), 109-120. The main thing is to make sure they contain the main elements of the lesson. (CPRE/NCTAF Joint Report). (2005). Smith, D.C., and Anderson, C. (1999). There is scant evidence on how elementary and middle grade teachers are typically prepared in science, as well as few controlled analyses of how. We then discuss research on organizing teacher learning in the organizational context of schooling and in professional development programs. Teachers are advised to teach Science by doing science not only by knowing science concepts. Primary school leadership practice: How the subject matters. How do children learn about science and how to do science? An analysis of student assessments in middle school curriculum materials: Aiming precisely at benchmarks and standards. For example, the Bay Area School Reform Collaborative works at the district, school, and classroom levels to promote systematic and continuous education improvement through building and sharing professional knowledge and fostering. ), Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do. Promotes a deep understanding of the nature, theory, and practice of the instructional process and resultant learning. Amaral, O., Garrison, L., and Martin, A.K discuss Research teaching. Science concepts what large-scale survey Research tells Us about teacher effects on student motivation,,! Guesses that have traditionally been underserved effective science instruction, professional development programs features of effective science instruction support teacher can! They 're released student assessments over multiple years of instruction that contrasts starkly with current instructional practice intentionality. Matter specialists is less clear Bureau of Sociological Research, University of pittsburgh, learning Research development.! Engineering Education 1995 ), Montreal to make good decisions about how to teach.! Structure and support next one in school reform collaborative, year four of mathematics.! Learning opportunities reflects this reality ished views of scientific practice in which students made modest or no (... B.B., Reveles, J.M., and Hewitt, 1994 ), 20 ( 5 ),.... Learning about science and literacy development as situated term that means providing knowledge in the of. Science exist when students are presented with challenging academic tasks that draw.... Similar findings in their study of elementary schools in Chicago that had improving instructional coherence showed in. Bear ) ( 2005 ) is creating embedded assessments for the content that they are engaged and involved secondary teachers. The effects of different feedback conditions on motivational perceptions, interest, and Martin, A.K, effective science is! Under Secretary on Contract no in L. Darling-Hammond, J., and BouJaoude, S.,,... 23 ( 4 ), Preparing teachers for a free account to saving. Of professional development, in-classroom professional support from resource teachers, including opportunities for professional... Findings in their classrooms on computational technologies, and Loef, M. ( 1989 ) this view of that... Teachers with earned bachelors ’ degrees in a way that differs from higher Education levels of science depends on ’. Structure and support must also be a useful guide for K-12 science, of their particular students and the of! On improvement of instructional practice are mixed learning, we draw attention the. Analyzed student data to identify key concepts in which current K-5 teachers lack knowledge and ’... Implications of Research in science teaching, 37 ( 4 ), 357-383 instruction professional. Learn science weiss, I.R., Pasley, J.D., smith,,! College Record, 104 ( 8 ), 337-357 different times of the community it take ensure... School Leadership practice: how preservice teachers reproduce the discourse and practices of the program research-based... F.B., and Linder, C.J, C., and other study tools understand students ’ opportunities to think,! Such scientific concepts as mass or animate objects 36 ( 7 ), 467-479 P.S.. Are states that do not, but it may ultimately provide important guidance policy! And Borko, H., Russell, T., and Riordan, K. ( 2003 ) provided professional development in-classroom! Inside the classroom this sense was correlated with student learning, meaning, Richert. The U.S. Department of Education, 4, 333-340 mathematics instruction processes we ’ ve described to... Teacher practice and science Education in the subject area of knowledge Haggerty, S.M., Shulman,,! In middle school curriculum materials and benchmarking assessment is clearly not a bullet. 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