Two 'Insect' class Royal Navy gunboats at Baghdad. Newly employed Chinese Labourers were used at Newhaven Harbour after 1917. This became much more pressing from 1916, when large amounts of equipment were transported across the Channel in response to appeals from the French authorities to meet chronic shortages. A key component in any military capability is logistics; support to the personnel engaged, the equipment used and the replenishment of stores. WW1: Maintaining supplies. The three line trench system was how the trenches were dug. One of these arose when the supply of steam coal from the Welsh mines for the Grand Fleet based at Scapa Flow was threatened by submarine attacks on coastal shipping. Dan Snow is speed dressed with a 1914 British Infantryman’s kit as used at the Western Front. The presence of horses often increased morale among the soldiers at the front, but the animals contributed to disease and poor … WW1 Weapons: Zeppelin Horses, donkeys, mules and camels carried food, water, ammunition and medical supplies to men at the front, and dogs and pigeons carried messages. This distance was too long to be bridged effectively with horse-drawn vehicles, because horses could not manage a daily round trip of this length. Just as the demand for transport increased, many able-bodied men volunteered for military service. The British took increasing responsibility for operating the standard gauge railways supporting their forces. While WWI was fought in the trenches and used machine guns and poisonous gas, WWII was fought using modern artillery and machines utilizing more airplanes, ships, tanks, and submarines. This party of the 4th Battalion The Black Watch carry rations forward during the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in March 1915. At the start of the war, there was a fear of food shortages but the real shortages didn’t hit home until 1915, these initial prices and shortages were a knee jerk reaction to the announcement that Britain was at war. Ending 21 Dec at … Getting close to the front was the relatively easy part of the process. In ancient times, Gaelic-Irish sources wrote that warriors in the battle of Clontarf used moss to pack their wounds. How the U.S. contributed to WW1. By late 1916 construction of lines was under way, and between January and September 1917 the average tonnage conveyed weekly on light railways operated by British and Dominion forces expanded from barely 10,000 tonnes to more than 200,000 tonnes. Subject: Stores And Equipment: Standard List Of Medical Supplies The Minimum Standard List of Drugs, Chemicals and Surgical Supplies which was issued with Operations Regulation No. It is colourless and takes 12 hours to take effect. Nowhere was the planning more developed than in Germany and France. The main food was now a pea-soup with a few lumps of horsemeat. A bombardment that was aimed well could destroy enemy trenches, and knock out artillery batteries (groups of guns) and communication lines. Over 1,000 civilian lorries and over 300 buses were requisitioned at the outbreak of hostilities and were hurriedly moved across the Channel. Two technologies that were crucial in shaping the First World War were railways and artillery. The fodder for the horses alone took up more transportation capacity than food and ammunition for the men. Veterinarians use primarily medical equipment (stethoscope, needles and syringes, anesthetic machines, etc.). So crucial was transportation that in the last months of the war, despite a shortage of front line soldiers, men with railway experience were being transferred from infantry units to railway operating companies. 0 bids. It would be the last time the horse would be used on a mass scale in modern warfare. This October 1917 scene shows wounded being conveyed over the Judaean Hills to the Casualty Clearing Station in covered-in stretchers (cacolets) on the backs of camels. An ideal German World War I infantry division was composed of about 18,000 men and around 4500 horses or mules. The motor vehicle manufacturing industry increased production but it was a slow process because the industry was generally small and fragmented. Defending the docks. Once Gaza and Beersheba had been taken, the existing Turkish narrow gauge railways were converted to standard gauge to support the advance towards Damascus. The railways rapidly faced several major challenges. Lists of pages with links in sections on propaganda, call-up, maintaining supplies, air raids, wounded soldiers, victory; personal recollections and research World War One on … These include helmets, leather jerkins, goatskin garments and webbing. Ultimately the momentum of the advances from August onwards that precipitated the end of the war was able to be supported adequately. Food rationing in … It seems the main cause of early food shortage was that farmers, suppliers and shop keepers were holding back stock; maybe they believed that they would need their produce past Christmas 1914 or they were just takin… Entire new railways were built including a light railway nearly 60 miles long to support troops in the lower reaches of the Struma River valley. Also known as the Great War or First World War, it was fought mainly in Europe, but it also spread to the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. KS2 There was also a much greater demand on the available locomotives, rolling stock and infrastructure. The Gallipoli campaign could only be sustained by shipping supplies through the Mediterranean and using lighters and small vessels to take them ashore. Only American industry could supply material in large quantities at such short notice to augment the limited British manufacturing capacity. For Britain's railways the world was never the same. The bulk of their diet in the trenches was bully beef (caned corned beef), bread and biscuits. Increasingly, the gap was filled by recruiting women to take on numerous roles that had previously been barred to them. The network was to grow to some 2,000 miles of track. From machine guns to different types of gases, each was used for a specific reason and required great technique to use. Dan Snow is speed dressed with a 1914 British Infantryman’s kit as used at the Western Front. A single road, to Seres, supplied virtually half the British front, and collapsed rapidly under the traffic. Huge investments were made to improve the logistical support for operations, and by 1918 these had reached levels of sophistication that were ultimately capable of supporting the offensives that brought the war to a close. All As the troops advanced, supplies and reinforcements had to be brought forward across the shattered landscape of the battlefield where roads and railways had been obliterated. Each nation had developed very sophisticated schedules for concentrating troops and equipment at key depots and then despatching the forces rapidly to designated positions on their frontiers. Every bullet, blanket, bandage, artillery battery or tin of bully beef had to be manufactured and transported where and when it was required. £14.20 postage. Various items of uniform and equipment are labelled along with occasional notes about their use. Free. It was expected that the Russian Army would be slow to mobilise, so the strategy was to sweep rapidly through Belgium and Luxembourg, invade northern France and encircle around the north and west of Paris. It is estimated that over 1 million Africans were recruited or conscripted as carriers by the belligerents and they, together with the civilian population, suffered most of the casualties. At the turn of the twentieth century railways dominated land transport. Initial Turkish attempts in 1915 to invade Egypt from Palestine and cut the canal were repulsed. Q 9340. Consequently the main belligerent nations of Europe built their plans for mobilising and supporting their armies in war primarily around railways. It could also help break up … At the end of the war some of the surviving horses were sold as meat to Belgian butchers, being regarded as unfit for any other purpose. It also shows the harsh winter conditions and difficult terrain. Some light railways continued in operation for years after the guns fell silent, while much of the equipment was sold off and continued in operation, sometimes for decades, in many parts of the world. Often the final leg had to be carried out by the soldiers themselves carrying the food, water and other supplies to the front lines. Kitchen staff became more and more dependent on local vegetables and als… In early 1943, the 79th Armoured Division under the command of Major-General Sir Percy Hobart was given responsibility for developing equipment and tactics to perform specialised tasks in support of ground troops on and after D-Day. This slowed the rate of advance, while the retreating troops fell back onto their supply lines and were augmented by reinforcements brought in by road and rail to stem the tide. Railways provided the enormous logistical capacity needed to support huge armies in the field for years on end, including transportation of millions of artillery shells. The final link to the front line troops was normally carried out by ration parties under the cover of darkness. Meanwhile, further to the east, a campaign was fought along the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. These were like model train sets with light, narrow gauge sections of railway line that could be easily laid on the ground and relocated when they were needed elsewhere. But it was a close-run thing, with the Fourth Army operating 50 miles ahead of the only reliable railhead when the Armistice came into force. They consisted of three different sections, the front line, the support trenches and the reserve trenches. The front traversed mountainous terrain, posing huge logistical problems for both sides in supplying their troops. There, the foothold on Turkish territory was so small that horse transport and men undertook most of the transportation forward. Could be used to show children the different parts of a soldier’s kit in WW1. Other elements of WW1 kit including rifles and puttees are shown in more detail. Motor vehicles had yet to seriously threaten the railways, except for local traffic, while aviation was at an embryonic stage. The dazzle camouflage painted paddle steamer at the quay in the distance is filled with troops going on leave, contrasting with the ambulances waiting in the foreground. By the final months of the war, as General Allenby advanced towards Damascus, more Ottoman soldiers were strung out in strongpoints along the Hedjaz railway than were trying unsuccessfully to stem his advance. They quickly established networks that led from the main supply dumps to the artillery batteries and then further forward to smaller supply dumps and refilling points from which the front lines could be served. Meanwhile British forces were rushed across the Channel and deployed with the French and Belgian forces. What were air raids like during World War One? 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