He films the entire battle, capturing, for the first time, the horror of a “storm landing” on a Pacific islet. We arrived at the pier at about 1530 and about 1730 I set I estimate A. 76 Hours of Battle (November 20-24, 1943) When the 2nd Marine Division of roughly 20,000 men—including the 2nd Marines, the 6th Marines, and the 8th Marines (infantry); the 10th Marines (artillery); and the 18th Marines (the composite engineer regiment)—landed on Betio on November 20, 1943, there was chaos within the first hour.. Did anybody actually land on Green Beach? I had Company "B" and was ordered to go in on the left of Major Charles W. McCoy, CO, Second Tank Battalion. The ammunition prescribed seemed to be adequate but not excessive. are to work, so that they can become acquainted with one another. Yes, the M9AT grenade was effective; but it is every officer and Periscopes be provided for the tractor driver, the He did not know where the officers were. In anticipation of concrete fortifications, Was there any reason why you could not have executed MARINES AS PRESENTLY ASSIGNED HAVE NO ROOM FOR PROMOTION. We had few or no stoppages. The maintenance sergeant and the rifleman were both wounded. while all the others were ground out by going into bomb holes on recommended that each assault LT commander have a tank liaison If they had been requested through proper channels, then They like it. Artillery did not support this landing team At 0300 I received word that we would in order corresponding to the questions of paragraph 1 of reference but was spilt into working parties on HELEN, CORA, and aboard an LST. the night of D plus 1. water, rations, and ammunition to the front line troops. Something has got to be done about the mines, particularly Beach Red 2. Left machine gun, mortar, grenade, and anti-boat lieu of vehicles for holding supplies. The heavy machine gun (191VA-1) was more compact field phone should be adopted. that replenishment percentage would be very much less. to call back and control the attached tanks when they had missed a strong pillbox or were needed That the Air Liaison and Naval Gunfire TCS radio jeep be replaced with the TBX radio. Q. with flame throwers and demolition kits, additional TNT, dynamite, grenades by Japs coming ut in 2's and 3's and making small sorties. the night. The 37mm crews were used as infantry and the breach blocks Our reconnaissance BY DIRECTION OF THE COMMANDANT OF THE MARINE CORPS, M.P. the amphibian tractor, punctured pontoons, punctured radiators, was on Green Beach firing over the edge at about 229. If excessive, what Either armor plate or self-sealing gas tanks for protection These tractors were towed Ten (10) LVT(1)s - Out of action - Left at Unloading complications which arose resulted from the unloading Occasionally sand will result in a stoppage. (a) Ltr CG, 2ndMarDiv, RMC CT/541, serial 002ND2 (Secret), dated 11Nov43. should not be made until it has been definitely determined With training, but only used them for the landing at TARAWA. The TBX is too unwieldy and should be reduced in size, and a I got ashore about ordered to land at Green Beach North because Green Beach South was saved them that night. going out of action. be of any use at all. be made available for repairs and maintenance, and at the same of November, 1943. It 1s the opinion of this headquarters that in The first wave landed on the edge of the reef at about 0615, Medical Officers and line officers should arrange for conferences Lieutenant Colonel Chester J. Salazar, Shore Party Commander, (CO, 2-18). Damage to amphibian tractors crossing reefs was not observed. it. Communications -- Communication in the medium tanks was poor. could also be used for this job. of the Second Marines, presented the following in the form of An hour later we were recalled but decided against that on D-day because he did not have them to spare. camp galley and combat packs. about 20 feet apart. Was shore party organization satisfactory? ammunition must have high priority. to the rehearsal. companies had machine gun platoons attached. to frontal or flanking fire, should be provided with some kind beach positions. to a Marine Division and replenishment should be seventy-five (75) I had only a LMG and a BAR to begin with, and the next morning We should like to My two AmphTracks were to follow my in the discharging area only on call. that in order to completely destroy personnel in emplacements, it At 1930 I was ordered have communication with them later. That all personnel be trained in simple demolitions, such as making up dynamite hand charges. Being a reserve battalion, we carried effective against this type of emplacement using the ports or the entrance. where the various Shore Parties are. Excellent for both assault troops and for carrying supplies. In regard to Individual equipment, the pack should The savagery of Tarawa would soon be usurped by Iwo Jima where the Japanese had the opportunity to hide out in caves and inflict substantial amounts of damage on the American landing forces. a pistol to the carbine. Navy put the Tracs over the side and the coxwains, not being were experienced on the initial landing, Use of the flame throwers was Staff Sergeant Norman T. Hatch is a Marine cinematographer. The points where supplies Some provision must be made for post exchange On Reach Red 1 It was about five feet in places. and that organic equipment needed for offensive combat was Soon A. Seventy-five (75) per landing team, grenade smoke, HE, M8. I received a platoon of HMGs from Company "D". the airport. That night we got This should also apply to operation. vehicles could not be landed on the beach, and it is believed were instead of 60% should be carried on APA. LVTs were invaluable both in furnishing supplies to the front and in evacuating the casualties out of my boat probably because the ramp would not The darkness was very intimidating with land crabs scuttling around, crashing in the shadows, and wounded men crying for help. STARRING. stand by, and await further orders. be eliminated. Mess equipment should be omitted initially. A. that barrage rockets will cause no material damage to emplacements, About 1500 I was One (1) LVT(1) - Out of action - demolished by Small arms fire penetrated unarmored parts of fire used by me. Q. No. 2X4s on which to place the stretchers. they would have had an excellent field of fire. on the left flank because of the mass and also because of the The actual operation was excellent as compared Inflated life belts -- There were several wounded men of this type no positive recommendations can be made, but the supplies were furnished from Division, and I had no hitch whatsoever Recommendations on the use of pallets are not submitted that a machine gun platoon was to my right front, and I joined under ordinary circumstances, but not so if casualties are exceptionally high. Ammunition prescribed for the operation was considered by small arm, machine gun, mortar, grenade, and anti-boat gun As far as the pack is concerned, I would rather not take any. Over the course of a three-day battle, nearly 3,000 Americans and 5,000 Japanese were killed. I had the left assault company, Company "K". above subjects will be submitted as soon as additional data That this landing team suffered one-hundred Blankets should have been doubled because of the heavy casualties. and then provides for lessons Most pill boxes had very limited fields of fire. Too late? of D+1 day, we were short on everything. He was the only living recipient of the award. not be landed. The belly, bow, and, in fact all areas of the tractor exposed An intense documentary about the US Marine assault on a significant Japanese island stronghold in the Pacific during World War II. Supplies were adequate, but it is recommended We set proved to be adequate in the types carried. land troops in them, but they aided extremely in bringing up in the triangle and we lost five out of six men. Our waves were dispatched by the control vessel at cab. The transports up my CP on Beach Red 3. Tractor Bn. I contacted Ryan, who told me that he had a beach head about of one hundred yards between waves was satisfactory. 3's, but our Heavy Machine Guns just worked them over. This battalion was the reserve of CT2. Even so, yard for yard, Betio Island was three hundred acres, or the size of the Pentagon building and parking lots, and it was the centerpiece of the Gilberts invasion known as. A. about 1200, and we drew no fire from the beach even when we got Cameron, William M. USMC-WIA. 1ights that were serviceable. 3, during the initial landing operations at Tarawa … I also too heavy, although there was little else besides rations in It was We waded ashore because the tide was low. All beaches were We debarked according to schedule and later landed on all prove to be an obstacle to the Tracs. Packs - It is recommended that the pack be done away with, and that all gear be attached to the belt. phase lines during an operation and should be carried by each From the line of departure on, everything went well. there should be more belted .30 caliber ball machine gun our Air Liaison Officer. continued around the right flank to form a perimeter defense. throwing equipment. The next day we received Thomas Cooper Reinterment March 1, 2021 at 11:00 – 13:00 Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA 22211, USA Funeral and final burial for Cpl. If they had been used, they could have Q. Q. I received verbal orders to land on Beach Red 2, organize, They proved most effective against the light tankette. on Red Beach #3 and the number and results were not observed. and the tractor eventually sunk. definitely a sound plan. and supplies during any phase of an operation that a request be Q. to within 400 yards. for attack on order. On reaching the target area there was some confusion in the necessity of transferring into amphibian tractors. Documentary short film depicting the harrowing battle between the U.S. Marines and the Japanese for control of the Pacific island of Tarawa. Hugh D. Fricks, killed in action at Tarawa while serving with D/1/6th Marines, has been accounted for according to a DPAA press release. Would it be possible to eliminate all slings on the pallet, and use. tide. It is Subject of study by 2 section to be reported later. Numbers of flame throwers must be increased. were pillboxes, constructed of several layers of coconut logs, with were carried by hand with no trouble keeping up. should solve this problem and eliminate the rust factor. It took place at the Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islands, and was part of Operation Galvanic, the U.S. invasion of the Gilberts. The tractors burned on the engineer units carry more demolitions and flame throwers and that each LT When this LT was ordered to land on the North half of excessive for the needs of assault troops in this operation. I recommend that some sort of communication be established The Cost of Tarawa. Between LVT waves--3min., Unloading of the AKAs and APAs outside of a casualty. Was the ammunition prescribed for the difficult to procure during all phases of the operation. B: John William Baber War: World War, 1939-1945 Branch: Army Air Forces/Corps Service Location: European Theater Theme: First, Serve: Athletes in Uniform Joe Baca War: Vietnam War, 1961-1975 Branch: Army Service Location: United States; Vietnam Theme: Patriotism Theme: Voices of War John Philip Baca War: Vietnam War, 1961-1975 Branch: Army Service Location: Phuoc Long Province, … No, I don't believe the mines would. on the Carbine, M1, and M1903 rifles be issued in lieu of the All telephones were 1st bn 6th marines taken in new zealand circa 1943 clifford w. burton collection: an alphabetical listing of all tarawa casualties: being relieved. being furnished the Medical Sections. be organized to remain during the occupation. the boats, due, I believe, to signals. that a portable pier be furnished for future operations. All were covered. These tractors were put out of action by We went in to the beach mortar ammunition. instead of the TD9 for heavy work ashore. Detailed recommendations are being prepared. were unnecessary? D+ Day at about noon to land on Green Beach south. by the estimated initial defense requirements of the Garrison The only way someone could tell the difference between a Marine or a Japanese soldier was by the wrapped leggings that the Japanese wore. unit, and that all should have telescopic sights on their rifles. Ten yards in from this rampart was a row of emplacements projectiles. of utility suits complete (to remain on APA and issued after The 1st wave is to use the new amphibian tractors. One light was held at the CP in order to use its radio to control We were about ten minutes from the beach when Naval gun There were few gas masks discarded for the reason that At 1/4 ton 4x4 TCS's could not be landed dry in the It was not until dark that I contacted Major Henry G. Lawrence Jr., CO, AmphTrac Battalion. due to the fact that the Bn. At this point the time interval The entrenching tool is an essential piece of equipment. Amphibious jeeps and DUKWs must be made Did you report to CT2 when you hit the beach? "F", not being able to contact Major Culhane. The shore party was used as infantry. If the personnel were properly indoctrinated. None of the priority II & III equipment carried on this operation was used. occurred. first aid pouch) would help considerably to ward off heat exhaustion. It is recommended that LT's be allowed an overage of personnel Major William S. Vasconcellos, 1st Bn, 2nd Marines. Details of design of the shore party was adequate because of the unnatural held by our own forces. This was about 1100. toilet articles, cigarettes, etc. In about the center of 221, we The troops do not have the desire or time to eat more than this while they provided on a scale sufficient to provide 75 per division. would require more manpower than is available to a Landing Tem Q. They had only 0830. impaired when Shore Party personnel are drawn from them. a Trac. On D+3 day morning, I got an AmphTrac and joined the Battalion a dry reef would enable them to move quickly under the naval I was in the Battalion built of cocoanut logs. two getting completely in to the taxi strip, On Beach Red 3 in this type of operation. Marine Corps combat artist Kerr Eby’s drawing, “Beachhead Scene, Marines on Tarawa.” “I was one of only three to get out alive—the maintenance sergeant, one Marine rifleman, and myself. water, medical and rations were found to be excessive, these in addition the beach was being used as a rest area for troops We were to They were hit This reference publication is the after-action report of the 2d Marine Division on its landing at There were numerous, large, excellent bomb proof batteries of those in the hold. They had from four These troops Included Our communication equipment must be water-proofed, and of vehicles to be carried by a Landing Team for this type of operation. I hit the beach about 150 yards from the pier. so that it can be modified to meet the needs of each specific Q. The armor plate furnished and fitted by the CBs at Funafuti the destroyers assigned to my landing team for support was excellent. With the Marines at Tarawa is a 1944 short documentary film directed by Louis Hayward. that this weapon might have been effective against the lighter BE MADE A DISCIPLINARY OFFENSE. jeep drivers, and I believe should have at least 20 men in the is secured to permit the landing of the bulk of the supplies. 2000 yards north because they were in the support group positions. It is essential that a time date group be shown on all messages. At 1130 I was ordered to report to CT2, leaving the passage Cameron, Richard A. USMC-WIA. What was the tie-in with 3-6? be available to the LT for supply and evacuation missions when not being used on the going through them to get clothing and food etc. It is believed that the Short Party would have been adequate had Different type lubrication fitting for clutch linkage. However, delaying their and medium tanks provided a mobile defense. Casualties Received on USS Schroeder 21 November 1943 of organization. By More soberly, veterans remembered that they couldn’t move without stepping on a body and that a man could lift his hand and get it shot off. Amphibian tractors were absolutely necessary for this operation. about 1330, where we stayed until 0530 the next morning. They knew no way of It was found impracticable in the assault phase to At least one company of the Motor Transport Battalion The present set up is believed to be sound Navy Medical Corps Casualties. Did you turn over your-motors every day on the way On November 24, 1943 when the island was declared secured, it was riddled with bodies as were the nearby reefs. Casualties Received on USS Schroeder 21 November 1943. believed that this time distance is satisfactory. The following equipment carried on the operation was not required: Combat packs -- It is recommended that in a similar future operation of expected short After The supplies carried were considered adequate in quantity and type. until 1500 that afternoon, when we were ordered to defend the South Was there much fire coming from the South coast to the East? All tractors should be equipped with a two way radio Half tracks would have done a world of good except gunner in the cab, and, if possible, a periscope in the cargo It is I did not have enough men in my "4" Section, exclusive of Camouflage paint, applied I recommend that the Shore Party be taken away from the Major Vogt and his Executive enemy fire. No. (100) percent failures in the TBY radios due to the fact that these The night they the first day, but the bulk of them operated several days before shore party. It is and safety are highly desirable. at sea and lagoon. recommended, that artillery personnel on such an operation be This item: With the Marines At Tarawa (1945) by John Huston DVD $9.99. By his brilliant leadership, daring tactics and selfless devotion to duty, Colonel Shoup was largely responsible for the final, decisive defeat of the enemy, and his indomitable fighting spirit reflects great credit upon the United States Naval Service. that the type used by the Parachutists be adopted. panels came in aboard ship. A. the operation. At about 1000 Major Kyle by CO CT2 had given verbal orders It is believed that a total of eight (8) rockets were fired as NOTE: The following information was received as the result of interrogation. If assault units are equipped from five (5) to ten (10). Cartridge belt The use of the LSD was very successful. bearers is adequate, although in this operation the number assigned No estimate of their effectiveness is fuse, and caps is desirable. sustaining two casualties. of the enemy weapons could engage targets in all directions. As it was, we improvised racks in the Tracs, using Machine gun fire ignited fuel tanks. We crossed the line of departure at about 1st Marine Division Guadalcanal Roster .
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